jueves, 8 de mayo de 2014

Criminology Vocabulary

Aquí te dejo un Vocabulario en Ingles sobre diversos temas relacionados con la Criminología, Durante mi carrera muchos de los artículos donde encontraba información estaban en Ingles, así que espero que estas palabras te ayuden a entender de que hablan dichos artículos.


Active Crime Scene (Escena del Crimen Activa). A crime scene that is still giving off evidence and has not yet been completely processed and cleaned. A single Officer-in-charge is responsible for coordinating investigation at the scene. Unauthorized people (including witnesses) must be excluded from an active crime scene.
Algor Mortis (Enfriamiento Cadavérico). The postmortem cooling process of the body. This can be helpful in homicide investigations.
Battered-woman syndrome (Síndrome de la Mujer Maltratada). Under duress and feeling trapped in a cycle of violence, a battered woman may lash out lethally at her tormentor.
Blind Reporting (Reporte Anónimo). Lets sexual assault victims retain anonymity and guarantees their confidentiality when they share information with law enforcement.
Cognitive Interview (Entrevista Cognitiva). Interviewing technique that helps victims or witnesses put themselves in their mind at the scene of the crime.
Corpus delicti (Cuerpo del Delito).  "the fact of a crime having been actually committed." Before a person can be convicted of committing a crime, it must be proved that crime has occurred.
Crime (Crimen). An action or an omission that is in violation of penal law and punishable by fine, imprisonment, or death. State and federal statutes as well as local ordinances define crimes and penalties. Usually they involve an offender, a victim, state agencies of law enforcement, and the public.
Criminology (Criminología). Scientific study of the causes and prevention of crime and rehabilitation and punishment of offenders.
Dactyloscopy (Dactiloscopia). The science of fingerprint identification
Domestic Violence (Violencia Domestica o Violencia familiar). A group of behaviors (physical, sexual, emotional, and/or economic abuse) over an intimate partner.
Elder Abuse (Abuso al Adulto Mayor). Physical or mental mistreatment, exploitation, or abuse of the elderly. It can include fraud, assault.
Evidence (Evidencia) Judgments and conclusions can be based upon it. Includes relevant evidence. Also:
 Evidence (Evidencia asociativa): links a suspect with a crime.
Circumstantial Evidence (Evidencia circunstancial): See Indirect Evidence.
Competent Evidence (Evidencia Competente): properly collected, identified, filed, and continuously secured.
Direct Evidence (Evidencia Directa): establishes proof of a fact without any other evidence.
Indirect (or circumstantial) Evidence (Evidencia Indirecta): proves nothing, but tends to incriminate, such as a suspect's footprints found near the crime scene.
material evidence (Evidencia material): relevant to a specific case and forming a substantive part of the case or having a legitimate influence on the case's outcome.
Trace Evidence (Evidencia de Seguimiento): very small evidence such as hair or fibers.
Physical Evidence (Evidencia Psicológica): something real that helps to establish the facts of a case.
Probative Evidence (Prueba): necessary to investigate or prosecute a case; proves (or tends) to prove guilt or innocence.tery, murder, etc.
Felony (Delito Grave). A major crime that usually carries a penalty of imprisonment of over one year in a state penitentiary or death. Examples are: aggravated assault, homicide, and robbery. More serious than a misdemeanor.
Forensic Science (Ciencias Forenses). The applied science that uses techniques and technologies of physics, chemistry, and biology to examining physical evidence left at a crime scene. Chemical tests can be made on hair, blood, dirt, cloth fibers, etc. Tools include DNA testing, microscopy, and spectroscopic analysis. A forensic scientist may study:
Audio and video recordings (Grabaciones de audio y video): analyze, enhancing as needed.
Crime scenes (Escenas del crimen): examine.
DNA profiles (Perfiles de AND): use in the comparison of biological material and with those of victims and suspects.
Documents (Documentos): examine physically (e.g. Handwriting, typewriting) and chemically (e.g. Inks and papers).
Drugs and poisons in human tissue and body fluids (Drogas y tóxicos, también fluidos): analyze.
Evidence such as bullets, casings, fibers, glass, gunshot residues, metals, oils, paints, petrol, plastics, soils, etc.(Evidencia de carteras, fibras, lentes, residuos de armas de fuego, aceites, pinturas, plásticos, etc..): examine and compare.
Fires and explosions (Explosivos e Incendios): examine the scenes to establish cause and origin.
Forensic ballistics (Balística Forense): conduct tests with firearms and ammunition.
Illicit drugs (Drogas Ilegales): identify.
Latent information (including fingerprints, foot prints, shoe prints, tire marks, and tool marks) (Evidencia latente): detect, enhance, record, save, and identify.
Plant materials (Plantas): identify botanically.
Homicide (Homicidio). A death in which another individual is the direct or indirect cause of the death.
Hostage Situation (Situación de rehenes). Priorities are to preserve life, capture the hostage takers, and recover/protect property. Negotiable items are food and drink. Non-negotiable items include punishments (including sentences up to the death penalty) and transportation (generally not negotiable because it is difficult to monitor and control).
Incest (Incesto). Sexual intercourse with a person that is known to have nearer kinship than first cousin. In some states this is a crime not only for biological but also adopted relationships.
Indirect Question (Pregunta indirecta). A vague question that skirts the issue and might be misinterpreted. Should be used little, unless one needs an unexpected answer that might lead in a new direction. Compare with Direct Question.
Inference (Inferencia o Suposicion). A process of reasoning by which a fact may be deduced.
Informant (Informante). An individual that is not a complainant, witness, victim, or suspect, and that can provide information related to a case or a suspect.
Interrogation (Interrogatorio). Questioning of an unwilling person (could be a relative or friend or suspect or even a witness) that is reluctant to give you information and that is suspected of direct or indirect involvement in the crime being investigated. Contrast with interview.
Modus Operandi (MO). Characteristic method used by a criminal for a particular type of crime.
Nonverbal Communication (Comunicación No Verbal). The messages conveyed physically, particularly by posture and gesture, but also by distance, dress, eye contact, mannerisms, rate of speech, and tone of voice. Nonverbal communication are usually more spontaneous than verbal communications, and therefore indicate the truth or falsehood of what is said in field interview, regular interview, or interrogation,
Organized Crime (Crimen Organizado). A group (3 or more) of individuals who conspire and act out activities that our justice system deems illegal. Some examples of organized crime groups include the Italian Mob groups, drug cartels, gangs, and other drug smuggling groups.
Postmortem Lividity (Lividez Cadavérica). Dark blue or purple discoloration that the body develops when the heart stops beating at death.
Rape (Violacion). Sexual intercourse with a person against their will.
Rationalization (Racionalización). Also called 'the theory of closure'. The mind does not like incomplete packages. So it is likely to complete something that is unresolved, and soon believe that invention is true. Minimize this creation of memory error by an interview or interrogation immediately after an event.
Relevant evidence (Evidencia Relevante).Evidence that helps explain testimony. Compare with material evidence.
Social Order (Orden Social). a condition of a society characterized by social integration, consensus, smooth functioning, and lack of interpersonal and institutional conflict.
Vehicle Driver Robbery (Robo de vehículo). A robbery of a vehicle driver.

En verdad espero que esta información te sea útil y facilite tus futuras investigaciones :)

“Algunas de las mejores lecciones son aprendidas de errores pasados. El error del pasado es la sabiduría del futuro.” -Dale Turner